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Full text of "Water resources of the Central New York region"

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BULLETIN 64 


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William G. Weist, Jr. and G. L.Giese 
U. S. Geological Survey 


STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


..... 



WATER RESOURCES OF 
THE CENTRAL NEW YORK REGION 


BY 
WILLIAM G. WEIST, JR. and G. L. GIESE 
U. S. GEOWGICAL SURVEY 


* 


Prepared by 


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
in cooperation with 


NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


Bulletin 64 
1969 



STATE OF NEW YORK CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT - WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


MEMBERS 


R. Stewart Ki1borne...............................Conservation Commissioner 


J. Burch McMorran............................Commissioner of Transportation 


Louis J. Lefkowitz.........................................Attorney Genera1 


Ho11is S. Ingraham, M. D. ...........................Commissioner of Hea1th 


Don J. Wickham......................Commissioner of Agricu1ture and Markets 


Nea1 L. Moy1an.....................................Commissioner of Commerce 


John J. Burns...................................Office for Loca1 Government 


ADVISORY MEMBERS 


David C. Know1ton.....................................Representing Industry 


Leonard DeLa1io (A1ternate)........................Representing Agricu1ture 


Michae1 Petruska.....................................Representing Sportsmen 


Wi11ard L. Reading (A1ternate)..........Representing Po1itica1 Subdivisions 


Robert S. Drew..................................Secretary to the Commission 


STATE OF NEW YORK CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT - DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES 


F. W. Montanari ......................................Assistant Commissioner 


N. L. Barbarossa.........................................Assistant Director 


E. L. Vope1ak..........................................Director of P1anning 


UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
walter J. Hickel. Secretary 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


Wi11iam T. Pecora..................................................Director 


Ernest L. Hendricks.......................................Chief Hydro1ogist 


George E. Ferguson.....................................Regiona1 Hydro1ogist 


Gara1d G. Parker.......................................Oistrict Hydro1ogist 



CONTENTS 


Abstract......................................................... 
I n t roduc t i on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · · · · · · · · · 


Water-related problems of the Central New York Region........ 
Ava i I ab i I i ty of da ta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · · · · · 
Geography.................................................... 
Acknowl edgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . · · · · 
The hydrologic cycle............................................. 
Water use........................................................ 
Ground wa te r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . · · · · 
Water from the bedrock....................................... 
Water from the unconsolidated deposits....................... 
Development of ground-water resources........................ 
Surface water.................................................... 
Streamflow characteristics................................... 
Variability of streamflow................................ 
Low s t reamf low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · · 


Regionalized draft-storage-frequency relationships....... 
Regional flood frequency................................. 
Regional flood-volume frequency.......................... 
Qua I i ty of wa te r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . · . · . 
Chemical quality............................................. 
Quality of the ground water.............................. 
Quality of the surface water............................. 
Po I 1 uti on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · . · · · · · 
Future development of water resources............................ 
References cited................................................. 


Glossary of terms and abbreviations pertaining to 


water resources....................................... 
Bulletins published by the New York Water Resources Commission... 


i i i 


Page 


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3 
5 
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18 
18 
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21 
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26 
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29 
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31 
39 
42 
42 
43 
45 
48 
50 
52 


54 
55 



ILLUSTRATIONS 


Plate I. Hap showing location of the Central New York Region, 
its physiographic provinces, and the drainage 
basins in or adjacent to it....................... 


2. Map showing hydrologic units of bedrock............. 


Figure I. Map showing generalized water situation............. 


2. Map showing average annual precipitation............ 


3. Map showing average annual lake evaporation and 
wa te r I os s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


4. Map showing average annual streamflow............... 


5. Graph showing water budget for the Syracuse area.... 
6. Graph showing water budget for the Cortland area.... 


7. Map showing location and size of public water- 
supply systems.................................... 


8. Map showing areas where wells yielding 500 gallons 
per minute or more can be developed............... 


9. Map showing availability of ground water from sand 
and gravel deposits............................... 


10. Curves showing duration of daily flows for four 
streams, adjusted to the 1931-60 water years...... 


II. Curves showing magnitude and frequency of minimum 
annual average consecutive-day discharge of 
Onondaga Creek at Dorwin Avenue, Syracuse, based 
on climatic years 1952-63......................... 


12. Map showing minimum average 7-consecutive day flows 
with a recurrence interval of 2 years............. 


13. Map showing minimum average 7-consecutive day flows 
with a recurrence interval of 10 years............ 


14. Regional draft-storage curves for a 20-year 
recurrence interval............................... 


15. Map showing flood-frequency regions................. 


iv 


Page 


In pocket 


I n pocket 


4 
8 


9 


II 


12 


13 


16 


22 


24 


28 


29 


32 


33 


34 
36 



IllUSTRATIONS (Continued) 


Page 


Figure 16. Curves showing frequency of annual floods for 
regions A, D, and H................................ 37 


17. Curves showing variation of mean annual flood 
with drainage area................................. 38 


18. Curves showing flood-volume frequency relations 
for region A...................................... 40 


19. Curves showing flood-volume frequency relations 
for region D...................................... 41 


20. Map showing surface waters containing more than 
500 milligrams per liter of total dissolved 
solids during base-flow conditions................. 46 


21. Map showing surface waters containing more than 
250 milligrams per liter of sulfate during 
base-flow conditions............................... 47 


TABLES 


Table I. Water use, in thousands of gallons a day.............. 17 


2. Summary of the bedrock hydrology...................... 19 


3. Range in concentration of selected mineral 
constituents in water from the various 
hyd ro log i c un i ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 


v 




WATER RESOURCE 


OF THE CENTRAL NEW YORK REGION 


by 


Willie G. Weist 1 Jr. and G.L. Giese 


ABSTRACT 


This report summarize the available data on the water resources of 
the Central New York Regio which includes Cayuga, Cortland, Madison, 
Onondaga, and Oswego Count es--an area of 3,622 square miles centering 
around Syracuse. The 740, 00 people living in the region use about 310 mgd 
(million gallons per day) f water for domestic and industrial purposes. 
About 90 percent of this w ter presently comes from surface-water sources. 


The region includes rts of four major drainage basins: the Mohawk 
River, the Oswego River, e Susquehanna River, and the Lake Ontario plains. 
Streamflow in the region i highly variable both from time to time, and from 
place to place. Generally flow is greatest during March through May and 
lowest during July through September. During periods of low flow, most of 
the water comes from groun -water discharge. Streams such as Chittenango 
Creek, that have large are s of storage in lakes, swamps, or extensive 
permeable deposits along t em, have larger, more dependable low flows than 
do streams that lack such torage areas. These latter streams may even go 
dry during periods of defi ient rainfall. The only streams with a minimum 
average 7-day, 2-year flow greater than 50 cfs (cubic feet per second) are 
the Salmon River below Sal n River Reservoir and the Seneca, Oneida, and 
Oswego Rivers. Over half f the streams in the region have a minimum 
average 7-day, 2-year flow less than 2 cfs. In general, the quality of the 
surface water tends to be etter than that of the ground water except during 
periods of base flow, when most of the flow comes from the ground water. 


Ground water in the r 
(bedrock) and unconsolidat 
can be divided into seven 
hydrologic properties. Th 
south: lower shale, sands 
limestone, and upper shale 
chiefly along bedding plan 
as the limestone and middl 
solution. The middle shal 
and salt, which are solubl 
of very poor quality. Wat 
but usable, whereas water 
better qua I i ty. 


gion occurs in both consolidated deposits 
d deposits (sand, gravel, etc.). The bedrock 
nits on the basis of similarity of lithology and 
se units are, in ascending order from north to 
one, sandstone-shale, dolomite, middle shale, 
In all of these units, ground water occurs 
s and joints. In the more soluble units, such 
shale, these openings have been enlarged by 
unit contains considerable amounts of gypsum 
in water; thus its water is almost invariably 
r from the limestone is likely to be very hard, 
rom the remaining bedrock units is generally of 


The best sources of g ound water in the region are the unconsolidated 
deposits of sand and grave in the major valleys. The amount of water 


- I - 



available from these deposits commonly can be increased through induced 
recharge or artificial recharge. A total of more than 240 mgd can be 
developed from the better sand and grave1 aquifers. Water from the uncon- 
solidated deposits genera11y reflects the quality of the water of the 
underlying bedrock. 


- 2 - 



INTRODUCTION 


One of the important considerations in planning the development of an 
area is the quantity and quality of the available water. This study was 
made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State 
Division of Water Resources to provide the New York State Office of Planning 
Coordination a summary of the data available on the water resources of the 
Central New York Region. It is part of the continuing program of water- 
resources investigations being made by the U.S. Geological Survey, under the 
direction of Garald G. Parker, District Hydrologist, in cooperation with the 
Division of Water Resources, New York State Conservation Department, under 
the direction of Francis W. Montanari, Director, Division of Water Resources. 


The region consists of Cayuga, Cortland, Madison, Onondaga, and Oswego 
Counties, which form parts of four drainage basins (pl. I). Reports 
covering the water resources of the Oswego River basin have been written 
for the Wa-Ont-Ya, the Cayuga Lake, and the Eastern Oswego River Basin 
Regional Water Resources Planning Boards and are being readied for publica- 
tion. The data contained in this report for the Central New York Region 
have been extracted from these reports. Work is in progress on reports for 
the Susquehanna River Basin Regional Water Resources Planning Boards and 
work in the Mohawk River basin has recently been initiated. The only 
published reports on the Central Region are those on the ground-water 
resources of the Cortland quadrangle (Asselstine, 1946), and on streamflow 
in the Susquehanna River basin (Hunt, 1967). 


Multipurpose planning for the development and management of the water 
resources in the Oswego and Susquehanna River basins is being done by 
regional water resources planning boards. These boards have been set up to 
study the water resources of the region - their present uses, and the 
feasibility of their future development - and to prepare a comprehensive 
plan for the protection, conservation, development, and utilization of the 
water resources. The Cayuga Lake Basin Regional Water Resources Planning 
and Development Board is responsible for the part of the Oswego River basin 
draining to the west of Owasco Lake and lying within Cayuga and Cortland 
Counties. The Eastern Oswego Regional Water Resources Planning Board is 
responsible for the parts of the Oswego River basin that lie within Madison, 
Onondaga and Oswego Counties, and the remainder of Cayuga and Cortland 
Counties. The Eastern Susquehanna Regional Water Resources Planning and 
Development Board is responsible for that part of the Susquehanna River 
basin that lies in the five-county area. Regional boards have not yet been 
organized for the Mohawk River and Lake Ontario Plain basins. 


WATER-RELATED PROBLEMS OF THE CENTRAL NEW YORK REGION 


Problems related to water in the Central New York Region are of three 
types: too little, too much, and too poor (fig. I). 


Too little -- throughout large areas of the region it is difficult to 
obtain more than a few gallons a minute from wells. This is enough for 


- 3 - 




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EXPLANA TION 


Ar V////j 
I' eas where 
Ikely to be I well yields a 
ess than 10 re 
gpm. 
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reas where c . 
of the water ma hemlcal qual it 
y be poor. y 


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Area s wh 
ere . 
to structures significant da 
result of fl d h . as occurred mage 
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household use or for watering stock, but is insufficient for most industria1 
purposes or for deve10ping a public supp1y. Communities drawing water from 
surfac.e sources may face seri ous water shortages duri ng drought peri ods 
when streamflow is deficient. 


Too much -- flooding can occur along the streams at any time of the 
year, and there usually is some flooding each year. Floods affecting large 
areas generally occur only during the spring runoff, whereas the f100ds 
resulting from summer storms usually affect only a limited area. Erosion 
caused by heavy rainstorms and flooding is generally confined to open farm- 
land. Deposition of the sediment derived from this erosion can cause minor 
problems and inconveniences farther downstream. 


Too poor -- most of the water is hard, and may contain higher concen- 
trations of certain minerals than the suggested limits. A broad band across 
the central part of the region contains ground water that generally is too 
highly mineralized for uses other than cooling, fire protection, sanitation, 
or other uses not requiring potab1e water. Pol1ution of the surface water 
is fairly common in and downstream from most of the major communities. 


In addition to those problems shown in figure 1, there are other very 
important water prob1ems which, for lack of complete quantitative information, 
are not shown. These include irrigation water needs, municipa1 and industrial 
water supply needs, needs for fish and wildlife enhancement, flow augmentation, 
and recreation. Fortunately, most of these problems can be alleviated or 
controlled. Most of the upland areas, where only low yields can be obtained 
from wells, are rural areas and large yields are not needed. Large yields 
can be obtained in most of the major stream va1leys, and these generally are 
the areas where the 1arge communities and heavy industrial deve10pment are 
located. Problems of flooding can be alleviated through proper f10w regu1a- 
tion of existing 1akes, through the construction of contr01 structures, and 
through proper f100d-plain zoning. Erosion and the resu1ting sedimentation 
problem can be contr011ed through proper land use practices, such as contour 
p1owing, construction of waterways, settling basins, and terracing. Much of 
the mineralization in the waters can be removed by various, though sometimes 
expensive methods, and p011ution can be reduced by strict control of waste 
discharge and flow regulation. 


AVAILABiliTY OF DATA 


The availability of water-resource data for the Centra1 New York Region 
ranges from very complete to very little. Very little information is avail- 
able at present for the Lake Ontario Plain and that part of the Mohawk River 
basin contained in the study area (pl. I). For these areas, most of the 
information in this report is based upon data for similar areas, general 
knowledge of hydrology, and from inference. Ground-water data are very 
complete for the Oswego River basin, and 1ess complete but adequate for the 
Susquehanna River basin. Surface-water data are comparatively extensive for 
the Susquehanna River basin and the western part of the Oswego River basin. 
Surface-water data are less complete for the remaining part of the Oswego 
River basin. In general, data coverage for the entire Central Region 
improves from northeast to southwest. Water-quality data coverage is 
similar to that for ground and surface water throughout the area. 


- 5 - 



Much more information is needed on industrial use of water in the 
region. Detailed studies should be made of specific areas before extensive 
development of their water resources is attempted. 


GEOGRAPHY 


The Central New York Region has been subdivided into three physiographic 
regions (pl. I): the App,alachian Upland, the Erie-Ontario Lowland, and the 
Tug Hill Upland (Broughton and others, 1966, p. 32, fig. 19). 


The Appalachian Upland, which fonms the southern part of the region, is 
characterized by a succession of narrow valleys and steep ridges having a 
general north-south trend. The land surface rises to the south, reaching 
altitudes greater than 2,000 feet above sea level in southern Cortland 
County. 


The Erie-Ontario Low'land is formed by the relatively low, flat area 
south of 
ake Ontario. The land surface rises gently away from the lake 
shore until it meets the abrupt rise of the escarpment that forms the edge 
of the Appalachian Upland to the south, and the Tug Hill Upland to the east. 
Low east-west escarpments are formed in places on the lowland by resistant 
rock units, but in general, there is no dominant trend to the land forms. 


The northeast corner of Oswego County is the only part of the region 
that lies in the Tug Hill Upland. This is a sparsely populated area of 
broad, flat hills with low relief. The area is poorly drained, resulting 
in many swamps. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


The authors wish to acknowledge the cooperation of their colleagues 
who collected most of the data on which this report is based: Irwin H. 
Kantrowitz, Leslie J. Crain, James B. Hood, Charles L. O'Donnell and 
William J. Shampine (Oswego basin data), and Oliver p. Hunt, Robert D. 
MacNish, Allan D. Randall, Henry F. H. Ku, and Robert G. LaFleur 
(Susquehanna basin data). The work and preparation of this report was 
done under the direction of A. M. La Sa la, Chief, Areal Studies Section, 
U.S. Geological Survey, Albany, N. Y. Detailed reports on the water 
resources of these basins are now in preparation. 


- 6 - 



THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 


The continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth and 
back to the atmosphere is called the hydrologic cycle. Essentially, the 
sun acts as a giant pump, providing the energy required for water to move 
in the hydrologic cycle. Water falls to the earth as precipitation in the 
form of rain, hail, sleet, or snow. From there it may return to the 
atmosphere through one of several paths. It may evaporate directly from 
the surface of the earth where it fell, or it may run off in streams and 
rivers to lakes or to the ocean, and then be evaporated. Some of the 
precipitation enters the ground, of which part replenishes soil
isture 
deficiencies, part is used by plants, and the rest percolates down to the 
water table and then moves downgradient toward streams and lakes where it 
di scharges. 


In the Central New York Region, most of the precipitation that falls 
during April through September either runs off or is lost through evapo- 
transpiration. Only during October through March does an appreciable amount 
of precipitation go into storage. 


The average yearly precipitation in the region ranges from less than 
32 inches south of Auburn to more than 55 inches in the Tug Hill Upland. 
The areal variation in annual precipitation is shown in figure 2, adapted 
largely from a map prepared by Knox and Nordenson (1955). The isohyetal 
lines for the part of the area in the Susquehanna River basin were taken 
from a preliminary map prepared by the U.S. Weather Bureau in 1964. 


Precipitation is brought to the Central New York Region mainly by two 
types of storms. The first consists of large-scale, low-pressure systems, 
the second of small-scale atmospheric disturbances. The actual amount of 
precipitation that falls in anyone place during a storm is controlled to 
a large extent by topography. When a mass of moist moving air reaches an 
area of high terrain, the air mass is forced to move upward where it is 
cooled, and part of the moisture condenses and precipitates. We see, then, 
from figure 2, that the precipitation contours reflect the topography rather 
closely. 


Lake Ontario exerts a secondary control on precipitation in that moist- 
air masses coming from the west tend to be channeled over the lake. The 
main part of these air masses often leaves the lake at its eastern end and 
begins releasing precipitation as it passes over the higher terrain of the 
Tug Hill Upland. This explains the high amounts of precipitation received 
the re . 


Average annual lake evaporation and water loss for the region, taken 
from Knox and Nordenson (1955), is shown in figure 3. Water losses consist 
of evaporation from land and water surfaces and transpiration by plants. 
The two processes together are often referred to as evapotranspiration. 
Yearly losses range from about 18 inches in the eastern part of the area 
to about 22 inches in the central part of the area. Naturally, water losses 
are greatest during the growing season when plants are active and high air 
temperatures prevail. Lines of equal lake evaporation are also shown in 


- 7 - 



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EXPLANA TION 



 


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Line of equal average annual 
precipitation. Interval 2 and 
5 inches. 


.3. 
00' 


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00' 


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t 


o

:\ 

(r 


3d 


'Miles 


0" 


30' 


Figure 2.--Average annual precipitation. (Adapted from Knox and Nordenson, 
1955, and U.S. Weather Bureau, written commun., 1964.) 


- 8 - 



... 
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t-- 


i--
 

 


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--22-- 
Lines of equal lake evaporation. 
Interval I inch. 
--18- 
Lines of equal water loss. 
Interval 2 inches. 


>d 


Miles 


..' 


.0' 


Figure 3.--Average annual lake evaporation and water loss. 
(From Knox and Nordenson, 1955.) 


- 9 - 



figure 3. The method used was based on computed pan evaporations. This 
information may be used for preliminary estimates of expected evaporation 
from proposed reservoir sites. 


The difference between precipitation and water loss is termed water 
yield. Water yield from a given area includes ground-water flow out of the 
basin as well as overland runoff. Except on some very small drainage areas, 
water yield is practically equivalent to streamflow. Average annual stream- 
flow for the Central Region is shown in figure 4 (written communication, 
Oliver Hunt, 1968). The runoff is shown in cfsm (cubic feet per second per 
square mile) which can be converted to inches of runoff a year by multi- 
plying by 13.57. It ranges from slightly less than I cfsm in central Cayuga 
County to just over 2.6 cfsm on the Tug Hill Upland. Host of the streamflow 
occurs from December through May, when loss through evapotranspiration is 
lowest. The highest streamflow is in March and Apri1 when the snowpack 
melts and the soil-moisture requirements have been satisfied. 


A water budget frequently is useful in tracing the movement of water 
in an area and in determining the availability of water for development. 
The water budget can be expressed as: P = R + ET + 
S 


in which P = precipitation 
R = runoff 
ET = evapotranspiration 

S = change in water in storage (soil moisture, lakes, 
reservoirs, snowpack, and ground water). 


Unless an intensive study has been made, it usually is not possible to get 
accurate values for all of these parameters, and certain assumptions must 
be made. For the two water budgets prepared as part of this study, it was 
assumed that the moisture capacity of the soil is 4 inches. There is no 
long-term change in water in storage (
S = 0), and the precipitation 
recorded is less than the actual precipitation that fell on the entire 
watershed. Judging from numerous other studies, 4 inches of soil moisture 
seems to be a fairly good average value, and its use should not introduce 
any serious errors. There is no indication of any long-term trend in either 
the ground-water level or the runoff in the area, so the assumption of no 
change in storage is valid. Figure 2 shows that the average annual precipi- 
tation is greater in the upper parts of the drainage basin than it is at the 
stations used for the analyses. The potential evapotranspiration for each 
area was calculated according to the method described by Thornthwaite and 
Mather (1957), and was then adjusted to the available moisture to estimate 
the actual evapotranspiration. In this method it is assumed that any avail- 
able moisture (precipitation, soil moisture, etc.) goes first to satisfy the 
demands of potential evapotranspiration. Any excess then goes into runoff 
and/or storage. If there is not sufficient moisture available to meet the 
potential evapotranspiration, then actual evapotranspiration equals the 
amount of moisture available. This method is not very accurate for short 
periods, such as a day or a week, but is believed reasonably accurate when 
used on a monthly or yearly basis. 


- 10 - 



i--
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EXPLANATION 


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s 


_ <t'\ MT"" 


 


Line of equal average annual 
streamflow. Interval 0.2 cubic 
feet per second per square mi Ie. 


... 
00' 



 c_. t 

 

(r >d 
Miles 


Figure 4.--Average annual streamflow. (Based on records for 1931-60. 
To convert to inches, multiply by 13.574.) 


- 11 - 



Figure 5 shows the average annual water budget for the Syracuse area. 
It is based on the precipitation recorded at the Syracuse airport from 1958 
through 1966, and on the runoff measured in Butternut Creek near Jamesville 
from 1959 through 1966. The average annual precipitation for this period 
was 33.71 inches, the average annual runoff was 18.16 inches, and the 
average annual evapotranspiration was estimated to be 20.34 inches as 
compared to a calculated potential evapotranspiration of 25.15 inches. 
The 4.8 inches difference between runoff plus evapotranspiration versus 
precipitation probably is accounted for by increased precipitation in the 
upper part of the basin, but may in part be due to errors in measurement. 
Between October and February there is about 5.9 inches more precipitation 
than runoff plus evapotranspiration. A part of this excess is made up of 
water stored on the ground in the form of snow, and a part goes into ground- 
water reservoirs, to appear later as ground-water discharge in the form of 
streamflow during the summer months. 


6 


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Figure 5.--Water budget for the Syracuse area. 


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- 12 - 


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The average annual water budget for the Cortland area (fig. 6) is based 
on the records of precipitation from 1931 through 1960 and of streamflow 
from 1939 through 1966, both measured at Cortland. The average annual 
precipitation was 40.66 inches, the average annual runoff was 21.75 inches, 
and the average annual evapotranspiration was estimated to be 22.41 inches 
as compared to a calculated potential evapotranspiration of 24.27 inches. 
The net deficit of 3.5 inches is again accounted for by greater precipitation 
in the upper parts of the drainage basin, especially that in the basin of 
East Branch Tioughnioga River. Between October and February about 5.4 inches 
of moisture goes into storage. 


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Figure 6.--Water budget for the Cortland area. 


Although both these budgets are based on incomplete knowledge of the 
areas, and several assumptions had to be made, the values given should be 
of the correct order of magnitude. 


- 13 - 



WATER USE 


Approximately. 740,000 people living in the Central New York Region use 
an estimated 310 mgd (million gallons per day) of water; this includes both 
domestic, industrial, and other nonresidential uses, but does not include 
water used for power generation and the operation of the Barge Canal system. 
If hydroelectric power generation is included in the total, the amount is 
well over I billion gallons per day. Still, this figure represents only 
about 20 percent of the average daily replenishable supply of water in the 
five-county area. Also, most of the water is used in a nonconsumptive way. 
That is, most of the water used is returned to or near the point of with- 
drawal with little or no change in amount. Thus, it is available for reuse, 
providing the quality remains satisfactory. 


Broadly speaking, water supplies come from two sources: 
water (streams, lakes, and reservoirs); and (2) ground water 
springs). Of the total water used in the area (not counting 
tion), about 90 percent comes from surface sources, and only 
from ground sources. The following table summarizes the use 
region, based on the latest available data. The information 
supplies was taken from an inventory made by the U.S. Public 
( 1964) . 


(I) surface 
(wells and 
power genera- 
about 10 percent 
of water in the 
on pub I i c water 
Health Service 


Estimated use of water, exclusive of power generation, 
in the Central New York Region during 1963 


Estimated average annual withdrawals 
(million gallons per day) 
I ndustri al 
and 
Pub I i c Domestic commerci a1 
Source of water supplies supplies supplies Total 
Surface water 81 0 200 281 
Ground water 12 7 8 27 
Both 2 - -- 2 
All 95 7 208 310 


The types of supplies are separated into: 


I) public supplies -- water supplied to home, industrial, and 
commercial users by municipally. or privately-owned systems; 


2) domestic supplies -- water supplied to a single home by an 
individually-owned system; and 


- 14 - 



3) industrial and commercial supplies -- water supplied to a factory 
or commercial establishment by a company-owned system. 


Approximately 82 percent of the residents of the Central New York 
Region are served by a public water-supply system (fig. 7). Lines in 
figure 7 connect those communities and areas that obtain their water from 
a larger community or water authority. Dashed lines are used for those 
areas that obtain water from the Onondaga County Water Authority, which is 
plotted on the map at Otisco Lake, its source. Starting in 1968, the 
Onondaga County Water District began withdrawing water from Lake Ontario 
and providing it on a wholesale basis as an additional supply to both the 
Onondaga Water Authority and the city of Syracuse. The other sources of 
supply for these two entities are Otisco Lake and Skaneateles Lake, 
respectively. This system is not shown in figure 7. 


The city of Syracuse is by far the largest water user in the region. 
It withdraws an average of 42 mgd of water from Skaneateles Lake for public 
supply. The amount of water used in the city by industry is not precisely 
known, but it is at least 200 mgd and it may be closer to 500 mgd. Other 
public water-supply systems in the region which use over I mgd are Oswego, 
Fulton, Auburn, Cortland, East Syracuse, Oneida, Baldwinsville, and the 
Onondaga County Water Authority. 


The use of water for public supplies has generally increased. Of the 
40 public supplies for which data on water use are available, 24 showed 
increased use between 1958 and 1963 (the last year for which use figures 
are available), and 10 showed decreased use. Table I summarizes the use 
of water by the 14 largest public-supply systems (ones that used at least 
500,000 gpd in 1963). 


The amount of water used for domestic supplies was estimated by allowing 
50 gallons per day for each resident not served by one of the public supplies. 


Water used for irrigation has been negligible in the past, but is likely 
to increase greatly in the near future. Although complete information is 
lacking, it is not likely that the total amount of water currently used for 
irrigation exceeds 2 mgd over the frost-free period. 


- 15 - 



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- 16 - 



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- 17 - 



GROUND WATER 


There are basically two types of water-bearing deposits in the Central 
New York Region: (I) consolidated deposits (bedrock), and (2) unconsolidated 
deposits. Although ground water is available practically any place in the 
region, large supplies (500 gallons per minute or more) are obtained mainly 
from the coarser, more permeable unconsolidated deposits. 


WATER FROM THE BEDROCK 


At least 20 different bedrock formations occur in the region, but they 
can be lumped into 7 hydrologic units on the basis of similarity of lithology 
and water-bearing properties. These hydrologic units occur as successive 
east-west bands across the region, as shown in plate 2. The lower shale 
unit (unit I) is the oldest, and underlies the entire area. It is overlain 
by the sandstone unit (unit 2), and the other units, which appear successively 
to the south through the region. Because all of the beds dip gently to the 
south, each unit is overlain by progressively thicker amounts of the younger 
units as you go south, as shown by the cross section in plate 2. 


The hydrology of the bedrock is summarized in table 2. Although 
sufficient water for household use can be obtained from all of the hydro- 
logic units, only the dolomite, middle shale, and limestone units (units 4, 
5, and 6 in plate 2) are apt to supply large quantities of water to wells. 
As is apparent from the table, obtaining water from any of the bedrock units 
depends on the well penetrating water-bearing joints or bedding planes. It 
is not always possible to predict the location of these openings, which 
explains why one well may be dry or may yield very little water, and a 
nearby well has abundant water and may not be as deep. Large yields are 
obtained where a well penetrates one or more solutionally enlarged joints 
or bedding planes. 


Because much of the bedrock is soluble, water from wells tapping bedrock 
is likely to contain large amounts of dissolved solids, salt, and/or sulfate, 
and may be very hard. This is especially true of water from wells tapping 
hydrologic units 4, 5, and 6 (pl. 2). In places, water from these units is 
too highly mineralized for any use except cooling, fire protection, or 
sanitation. The section on the quality of water contains more detailed 
discussion of the mineral contents of the water from the various aquifers. 


WATER FROM THE UNCONSOLIDATED DEPOSITS 


Throughout most of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsoli- 
dated deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, and various mixtures of these 
materials. These deposits range in thickness from a thin veneer on some of 
the uplands to as much as 290 feet in the major valleys. They can be divided 
into coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (fine 


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sand. silt and clay). and till (a mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and 
even boulders, that was laid down by the glacier). 


Till is the widest spread of the unconsolidated deposits. It covers 
most of the upland, a large part of the lowland south of Lake Ontario, and 
underlies other unconsolidated deposits in much of the rest of the area. 
The till is about 50 feet thick on hilltops, 30 to 40 feet thick on gentle 
slopes, and is much thinner or absent on steep slopes. In the lowland the 
till generally is about 30 feet thick, but in places it may be as much as 
200 feet thick. 


Till is not a good water-bearing deposit. It contains so much fine- 
grained material that it has a very low permeability and transmits water 
poorly. It usually is necessary to construct a large-diameter dug well to 
obtain enough water for household use. Rarely, if ever, is it possible to 
obtain more than 3 gpm (gallons per minute) from till. 


The fine-grained deposits were laid down chiefly in lakes that formed 
at the edge of a melting glacier. These deposits are found in the valleys 
and in parts of the lowlands, particularly in the Oneida Lake area. Like 
the till, the clay and silt are not good water-bearing deposits, and yields 
from wells tapping them rarely' exceed I or 2 gpm. 


The main source of water for large-yielding wells in the Central New 
York Region is the coarse-grained deposits, which are found principally in 
the valleys and in scattered deposits in the lowland. They were laid down 
as deltaic deposits by streams flowing into the glacial lakes, either from 
the glacier or from adjacent highlands; as channel deposits by streams 
flowing under the glacier, away from the glacier, or out of the lakes; and 
as terrace deposits by streams flowing between glacial ice and the sides 
of a valley. 


Yields of 500 gpm or more generally can be obtained from well-sorted 
sand and gravel deposits that have a saturated thickness of 40 feet or more. 
This is particularly true of the Homer-Cortland area, where at least 
II wells are reported to yield 500 to 4,000 gpm. Wells yielding over 
500 gpm have also been reported in Syracuse and near Jacks Reef at the 
southern end of Cross Lake. Many other wells tapping sand and gravel in 
the region are reported to yield from 100 to 500 gpm. 


In many places in the region, the fine-grained deposits (particularly 
the lake-deposited silt and clay) overlie coarse-grained deposits that can 
yield large quantities of water to wells. Although large yields are 
obtained initially, the fine deposits may prevent or delay recharge to the 
coarse deposits, and long-term yields may be disappointing. But where the 
coarse deposits are readily recharged, they usually are capable of yielding 
large quantities of water to wells indefinitely. 


Recharge to the deposits may occur directly from precipitation, by 
infiltration from streamflow (which may be increased through pumping), and 
by artificial means such as water-spreading and recharge wells. Direct 
recharge from precipitation occurs mainly where the land surface is fairly 
coarse-grained permeable material that allows the water to infiltrate 
rapidly. 


- 20 - 



Recharge from streamflow occurs mainly during spring runoff when the 
water table is lowest, and the higher flows tend to scour the stream channel, 
removing the fine material and increasing the penmeability. The amount of 
water entering the aquifer in this manner can be increased, with an 
accompanying decrease in the water lost to runoff, through what is termed 
"induced recharge. 11 When developing an aquifer that is in hydraulic contact 
with a stream, it is advisable to locate the wells where their cones of 
depression will extend to the bed of the stream. By thus dewatering the 
aquifer under the stream, more water from the stream is able to enter the 
aquifer. Induced recharge has been discussed in greater detail by Reed and 
others (1966) and by Winslow and others (1965). 


There are several methods for artificially recharging an aquifer, 
including diverting streamflow over an area of permeable materials, using 
pits or wells to put the water into the aquifer, and scarifying the stream- 
bed to increase its permeability. Todd (1959) has reviewed most of the work 
on artificial recharge that had been done prior to 1955, and much of the more 
recent work has been described in the literature (Parker and others, 1967). 
The method chosen depends on the individual site. Diversion and spreading of 
streamflow requires a fairly large area, and usually is not practical in 
heavily developed areas, or in areas where land is expensive. Recharge wells 
and pits require special construction, and although they generally recharge 
lesser quantities of water than are possible using spreading grounds, they 
may be the only practical means in places; Peoria-type pits (Suter, 1956; 
Smith, 1967) may well be the most practical type for use in the Central New 
York Region. In some areas it may be possible to utilize abandoned gravel 
pits for artificial recharge. 


DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND-WATER RESOURCES 


In a summary report such as this, lack of space and time forbids the 
discussion in detail of the various areas that have a potential for yielding 
large quantities of ground water. Figure 8 shows those areas in the Central 
New York Region where there is a strong possibility of obtaining 500 gpm or 
more from properly constructed and developed wells. Most of these areas are 
sand and gravel deposits along the major streams, particularly in the 
southern part of the area. The deposits generally are in good hydraulic 
connection with the streams, which is another reason for their large yields. 


Unfortunately, most of the areas where large yields are possible in 
the northern half of the region are also areas where the quality of the 
water may present a problem. Figure I shows the areas in the region where 
water problems exist. Although not suitable for most domestic purposes, 
much of this poor-quality water could be used for purposes for which the 
quality is not too important, such as: sanitation, cooling, fire protection, 
and, in some cases, feeding boilers. 


Present development of ground water in the Central New York Region is 
very small compared to the total amount available. Figure 9, which was 
adapted from a U.S. Geological Survey map of New York State prepared by 
Irwin Kantrowitz, shows the estimated potential daily yields of the better 


- 21 - 



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Areas of high yield wells 


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Figure 8.--Areas where wells yielding 500 gallons per minute 
or more can be developed. 


- 22 - 



sand and gravel aquifers in the region, assuming complete development of the 
aquifers. These estimates are based on available data, and should be treated 
as indications of yie1d rather than actua1 va1ues. Some of the aquifers 
extend into the adjoining counties, and the estimated yie1ds are for the 
entire aquifer. A rough estimate from the map indicates that at least 
240,000,000 gallons a day can be obtained from these aquifers, compared to 
an estimated present use of 27,000,000 gallons a day from all ground-water 
sources. 


There do not seem to be any areas at present where the ground water has 
been overdeveloped, and it is very like1y that many more good wells can be 
obtained in the areas of present ground-water use. In addition, new develop- 
ment can take place along the areas shown in plate 2 and figure 9. Hany of 
the smaller communities presently obtain their water from we11s and springs. 
In most cases these supplies can be increased to meet future demands, and 
other communities, which are favorably located, wil1 want to develop the 
10cal ground water as a source of their water. 


- 23 - 



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EXPLANA TlON 


Yield of aquifer 
in millions of gallons per day 


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Area boundary 


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Figure 9.--Avai1ability of ground water from sand and gravel deposits. 


- 24 - 



SURFACE WATER 


The Central New York Region is drained by four major stream systems, 
the Susquehanna River, the Oswego River, the Mohawk River, and streams 
tributary to Lake Ontario (pl. I). Although the total area of the five- 
county region is only 3,622 square miles, it receives water from more than 
6,500 square miles of drainage area. If Lake Ontario is included, it may 
be said that the Central Region has water available from almost 300,000 
square miles of drainage. 


The Oswego River basin dominates the drainage, covering about 
56 percent of the region. Next is the Susquehanna River basin, which 
drains most of Cortland County, parts of Madison and Onondaga Counties, 
and an insignificant part of Cayuga County, amounting to about 25 percent 
of the study area. Streams tributary to Lake Ontario drain about 19 percent 
of the region, and the Mohawk accounts for a scant 0.5 percent, all located 
in eastern Madison County. 


The lakes of the region are its most striking physical feature. Four 
of the famous Finger Lakes - Cayuga, Owasco, Skaneateles, and Otisco 1ie 
wholly or in part within the five-county area. Other major lakes in the 
region are Oneida and Onondaga. One of the Great Lakes, Lake Ontario, forms 
the northern border of the area. As much as 6 percent of the Oswego River 
basin is taken up by 1akes, and the percentage for the Central New York 
Region as a whole is about as high. 


These lakes are of great economic and recreational value to the people 
of the area. Many communities use them for water supp1y. Several lakes 
offer excel1ent fishing: Oneida Lake is famous countrywide for its walleyes, 
while lake trout attract many anglers each year to Cayuga Lake. 


With the exception of Onondaga Lake, the lakes in the region are 
genera11y free from serious manmade pollution and their quality ranges from 
fair (eutrophic Oneida Lake) to excellent (Skaneateles Lake). Onondaga Lake 
receives large amounts of chemical, organic, and bacterial po11ution from 
the Syracuse area. 


One of the most important water resources of the region is the New York 
State Barge Canal. Built primarily for navigation. the canal now serves 
several other important tunctions as well, including irrigation, recreation, 
and flood control. A brief descri.ption of the complex canal system follows. 


The canal (pl. 1) enters the Central New York Region while crossing 
Oneida Lake, and then merges with the Oneida River before reaching the 
beginning of the Oswego River at Three Rivers. From there it proceeds 
north as the Oswego River to the city of Oswego and Lake Ontario; and south 
and then west from Syracuse following the Seneca and Clyde Rivers to Lyons, 
west of the study area. 


The water supply for this complex canal system between Lyons and Three 
Rivers is obtained from Canandaigua, Seneca, Cayuga, and Oneida Lakes. 
Water, in limited quantity, is a1so received from the Susquehanna basin via 


- 25 - 



Erievi11e and DeRuyter Reservoirs. The summit level at Rome is supplied 
from the Black and Mohawk River basins. The Oswego branch of the system 
uses the Oswego River between Three Rivers and Oswego. A short branch uses 
Onondaga Lake Outlet and Onondaga Lake to reach a terminal at the mouth of 
Onondaga Creek at the eastern end of Onondaga Lake at Syracuse. The Cayuga 
and Seneca branch uses the Seneca River upstream from the junction with the 
Clyde River, and Seneca Lake to reach Geneva and Watkins Glen. A branch in 
Cayuga Lake and a tenminal in Cayuga Inlet serve Ithaca. 


STREAMFLOW CHARACTERISTICS 


Streamflow is highly variable with respect both to time and place. 
Floodflows are commonly thousands of times greater than low flows, and 
average flows may range areally from less than I to more than 2 cfs (cubic 
feet per second) per square mile. 


Most often, it is the extremes of flow which cause or accentuate water 
problems such as floods, water shortages, and pollution. The fol1owing 
discussions deal with variations in streamflow within the Central New York 
Region and present streamf10w characteristics useful to water managers in 
solving these problems. 


VARIABILITY OF STREAMFLOW 


Streamflow varies in two ways. It varies from time to time at a given 
location and it varies a1so from location to location. The variations with 
time at a given location are directly or indirectly due to changes in the 
weather; that is, they are due to variations in precipitation intensity and 
duration, air temperatures, relative humidity, and other less significant 
meteoro10gical factors. Variations in streamflow with geographic location 
are due largely to differences in climate, topography, and geology, and 
also to differences in the weather. 


Day-to-day variations in the flow of streams appear to be random, 
without a clearly definable trend. However, when the flow of a stream is 
represented by month1y averages, a yearly cycle becomes apparent, with flows 
usually highest in March, April, and May, and lowest in Ju1y, August, and 
September. 


The year1y streamflow cyc1e shown in figures 5 and 6 is typical of most 
streams in this region and the humid northeastern United States in general. 
When the growing season ends, usually in the beginning of October, the use 
of water by plants lessens drastical1y and streamflow increases as more 
water becomes available. During the winter months, when freezing tempera- 
tures prevail, a large part of the precipitation that falls accumulates on 
the ground as snow and is temporarily unavailable for streamf1ow. Con- 
sequently, stream discharges are composed large1y of ground-water contributions. 
When temperatures rise above freezing in the spring of the year, the combination 


- 26 - 



of rain and snowme1t often produces the highest discharges of the year. 
When the growing season begins (usually about the middle of May), vegetation 
starts to consume much of the precipitation otherwise available for stream- 
flow. Ground-water storage, which has been replenished during the nongrowing 
season, again makes up most of the streamflow. As ground-water storage is 
depleted through the summer months, streamflow decreases until the growing 
season ends. Then, water from precipitation again becomes available to 
increase streamflow and replenish ground-water storage. Thus, the yearly 
cycle is comp1eted. 


In addition to these within-year variations just discussed, we observe 
that streamflow varies from year to year. One year we may experience 
unusually 1arge floods and the next year much smaller ones, or we may 
experience in I year a daily discharge lower than any in the previous 
50 years, and the next year the minimum daily discharge may be much 1arger. 
Years of drought alternate between years of water abundance, but no one can 
yet predict in what years they will occur. (Later discussions concerning 
low flows, high flows, and floods treat these year-to-year variations trom 
a statistical standpoint.) 


Often, it is desirable to study the effect
 on streamflow of factors 
such as climate, topography, and geology, which do not vary appreciably 
with time, but which differ from place to place. Day-to-day variations in 
flow obscure these effects, so that it is necessary to portray streamflow 
in a manner which reflects long-term flow conditions. One way to do this 
is through the use of the flow-duration curve, examples of which are shown 
i n fig u re I 0 . 


We may read, for example, that the flow of Butternut Creek at Jamesville 
was equal to or greater than 0.15 cfsm (cubic feet per second per square mile) 
about 98 percent of the days. 
Searcy (1959) discusses flow-duration curves at length with regard to 
their hydrologic significance and applications. With respect to shape, 
Searcy (p. 22) says, "A curve with a steep slope throughout denotes a highly 
variable stream whose f10w is 1argely from direct runoff, whereas, a curve 
with a flat slope reveals the presence of surface- or ground-water storage, 
which tends to equalize the flow. [In other words, the presence of storage 
tends to produce a flat slope at both ends of the curve.] The slope of the 
duration curve shows the characteristics of the perennial storage in the 
drainage basin; a flat slope at the lower end indicates a large amount of 
storage, and a steep slope indicates a negligible amount. Streams whose 
high flows come largely from snowmelt tend to have a flat slope at the upper 
end. The same is true for streams with large flood-plain storage or those 
that d ra in swamp areas .11 


Notice, from figure 10, the manner in which the duration curves fan 
out at the lower end. From the preceding discussion, it is expected that 
this should be revealing of different storage characteristics among the 
four streams. Chittenango Creek, for examp1e, shows a f1atter slope at the 
lower end than does Butternut Creek. This is probab1y due to the storage 
available from Cazenovia Lake and Cedar swamp, which support the flow of 
Chittenango Creek during dry weather. The Butternut Creek basin, on the 


- 27 - 




 
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ango Creek ..., Chltte""ngo 

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 Chltteo"go C'eek oe", ChltleMogo 

 
 _ is expected to be equaled or exceeded _ 
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98 99 99.5 99.8 99.9 


100 


20 


30 40 50 60 70 80 


90 


95 


10 


Percent of time indicated discharge was equaled or exceeded 


Figure 10.--Duration of daily flows for four streams, 
adjusted to the 1931-60 water years. 


other hand, does not have as much storage available as the Chittenango 
basin, although fairly extensive well-sorted unconsolidated deposits do 
yield water to Butternut Creek in dry weather. 


Flow-duration data for streams in the study area are available from 
several sources. Hunt (1967) presents f10w-duration data for the 
Susquehanna River basin, 0 1 Donne I 1 and Hood (U.S. Geological Survey, 
written commun., 1967), for the Oswego River basin. 


Flow-duration curves, then, are useful in comparing place variations 
in streamflow due to differences in climate, topography, geology, etc. For 
specific studies involving the quantitative determination of flow character- 
istics, other types of analyses are more meaningful. These include low- and 


- 28 - 



high-flow frequency curves, flood-frequency relations, flood-volume-frequency 
relations, and draft-storage-frequency data. The following discussions 
present this information for the Central New York Region or refer to reports 
where it is available. 


LOW STREAMFLOW 


In planning for water supply and waste dilution, the question often 
arises whether the flow of a stream will be sufficient at all times for its 
intended purposes. It is almost always desirable in studies of this nature 
to have a knowledge of some of the low-flow characteristics of the stream 
site in question. 


Lowest flows generally occur during the months of August, September, 
and October, due to the demands of the growing season which have previously 
taken much of the water otherwise available for streamflow. Area11y, the 
magnitude of the low streamflows depends largely on variations in geology 
and precipitation (or lack of it). Streams fed by sand or sand-and-gravel 
aquifers tend to have high sustained flows during dry weather, whi1e those 
fed from areas underlain by till or shale, through which water moves slowly, 
have low dry-weather yields. 


A useful way to summarize low-flow information is through the low-flow 
frequency curves, examples of which are shown in figure II for Onondaga 
Creek at Syracuse. For a selected consecutive-day period of 30 days, for 
example, we read that the minimum average flow to be expected once in an 
average time interval of 20 years is 12.5 cfs. 


100 


(1)- 

 20 
co 
.s= 
() 
rn 
C) 


__!.2. s!s__ 


Example: The annual low flow for some 
7 consecuti ve-day period will average 
15 cfs or less once In an average tlml 
interval of 2.2 years. 


" 
s:: 
o 
() 
(I) 
rn 

 
0. 50 
Q) 

 
.
 
.Q 
::J 
() 
s:: 


274 day 


10 
0.1 


183 day 
150 day 
120 day 
90 day 
I 
o day 
30 day 
14 day 
7 day 
- day 


1.1 


1.2 1.3 1 1.4 1.5 


20 


40 


Ree urrenee i nterva I, in yea rs 


Figure II.--Magnitude and frequency of minimum annual average 
consecutive-day discharge of Onondaga Creek 
at Dorwin Avenue, Syracuse, based on 
climatic years 1952-63. 


- 29 - 



Frequency curves for 1-, 7-, and 30-day periods are used in studies 
involving fish stocking, water supply, and waste di1ution. Low-flow 
frequency data for streams in the Susquehanna River basin part of the 
Central New York Region are available in a published report (Hunt, 1967). 
Other low-flow frequency data are available in the files of the U.S. Geolo- 
gical Survey in Albany, New York. It is expected that by 1971 there will 
be comprehensive water-resources investigations covering all major basins 
of the five-county area. 


Figures 12 and 13 show the variations of the 7-day, 2-year and the 
7-day, 10-year minimum average consecutive-day flows along streams in the 
Central New York Region. Only flow ranges are given on the maps, and the 
information contained on them is most suitable for preliminary studies where 
only first approximations are required. The 7-day, 2-year flow values are 
practically equivalent to the median 7-day, annual flows. As such, they may 
be used in the draft-storage-frequency relationships presented in the next 
section of this report. 


REGIONALIZED DRAFT-STORAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIPS 


Demands for water often are greater than minimum streamflow but can be 
met by providing reservoir storage. The analysis of storage requirements 
for a specific project involves the consideration of streamflow character- 
istics, the geology and the topography at the storage site, the pattern of 
withdrawal, the economic consequences of a temporary deficiency in water 
supply, the amount of evaporation from the reservoir, the reduction in 
capacity because of sedimentation, and the possible modification of the 
reservoir capacity to provide for flood storage or recreation. This report, 
hOWever, considers only the streamflow facet of development without dealing 
with the suitability of a given site in other respects. 


The method of analysis used in this report is based on within-year 
storage required to sustain various draft rates continuously. Constant 
draft rates are superimposed on daily discharges at a gaged site for each 
year beginning April I and ending March 31. A full reservoir is assumed at 
the beginning of each year. On those days when streamflow is greater than 
a given draft, a positive storage value accrues. On those days when stream- 
flow is less than the given draft, a negative storage value accrues. A 
cumulative storage table is thus formed, and, for the given draft rate. the 
greatest difference between successive high and low values constitutes 
the storage required to maintain that draft for that year. A check is then 
made to see if the indicated storage required was replenished at the end of 
the year. If similar analyses for a number of years show that storage was 
not replenished consistently, the corresponding draft rates may be too high 
to be sustained. The process is repeated for various other draft rates for 
each year of record. From this information a series of draft-storage- 
frequency relations may be prepared. 


- 30 - 



O'Donnell and Hood (written communication, 1967) have developed regional 
draft-storage-frequency relations for the Oswego River basin. These relations 
are assumed to be applicable also to the remainder of the five-county area 
not in the Oswego basin. The development of these regional re1ations depends 
on successfully relating some streamf10w characteristic to draft rates and 
storage requirements for given recurrence intervals. This was accomplished 
in the Oswego River basin study by using the median 7-day, annual flow. The 
resulting relations, for a 20-year recurrence interval, are shown in figure 14 
(minimum average 7-consecutive day, 2-year flows, shown on a map in a previous 
section, may be used in lieu of median 7-day, annual f1ows). 


To use these regional relations for a particu1ar ungaged site, the 
median annua1 7-day, minimum flow must first be estimated from several base- 
flow measurements that can be correlated to gaged streams. When the estimated 
median annual 7-day, minimum flow is expressed in terms of cfsm, storages 
required for draft rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cfsm may be read direct1y from 
figure 14. Storages for intermediate draft rates may be interpolated. 


The theoretical upper limit for a draft rate is the mean annual 
discharge of a stream. In practice, because of evaporation losses and the 
impossibility of providing infinite storage, it is recommended that constant 
draft rates not be larger than the smallest annual mean discharge of record 
or, if no records are available, the smallest annual mean can be estimated 
from several discharge measurements and correlations with gaged streams. 


It generally is not economical to provide storage in excess of 
100 million gallons per square mile of drainage (or about 5.8 inches of 
runoff). Cross (1963) recommends this figure as an upper limit. However, 
natural storage is available in some locations which far exceeds this limit. 
The Finger Lakes, for example, have large natural storages in relation to 
their drainage areas. 


The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a statewide water- 
resources investigation, one part of which wi)1 be to define regional 
draft-storage-frequency relations which will take into consideration over- 
year storage. When completed, it will be a distinct improvement over the 
within-year type of analysis presented in this report, and will enable more 
sophisticated calculations of storages required for water supply in the 
Central New York Region. 


REGIONAL FLOOD FREQUENCY 


Know1edge of the magnitude and frequency of floods to be expected is 
an invaluable tool in the design and placement of structures over or 
adjacent to streams. The magnitude and frequency of floods in New York 
State have been described on a regional basis by Robison (1961); the various 
curves and relations applying to the Central New York Region are discussed 
in this section. Da1rymp1e (1960) gives a detailed description of the 
methodology and procedures for deriving these curves. 


- 31 - 



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a" be rt 
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EXPLANATION 



i> 


o 
\. 


E=3 


t-- 



 


0.0 - 0.5 cfs 


'-' 


t-- 



 



 



 


005 - 2.0 cfs 



 


2.0 - 10.0 cfs 



 


10.0 - 50.0 cfs 



 


50.0 - 20000 cfs 


E::3 


200.0 and over cfs 


.,. 
00' 


... 
00' 


N 
I 


50' 


Miles 


..' 


Figure 12.--Minimum average 7-consecutive day flows with a 
recurrence interval of 2 years. 


- 32 - 



io-i> 


t
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' 
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r-="=J' 

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EXPLANATION 
E3 
0.0 - 0.5 cfs 
E:3 
0.5 - 2.0 cfs 

 
2.0 - 10.0 cfs 

 
10.0 - 50.0 cfs 

 
50.0 - 200.0 cfs 
,,' 
E:3 
200.0 and over cfs 


... 
00 


1 


Miles 


Figure 13.--Minimum average 7-consecutive day f10ws with a 
recurrence interva1 of 10 years. 


- 33 - 



200 


100 


50 

 
E 
Q) 

 
CO 
:J 
C" 
en 

 
Q) 
C. 
+-' 
Q) 
Q) 
- 
Q, 

 
U 
CO 
C 
"'C 
Q) 10 

 
:J 
C" 
Q) 

 
Q) 
C) 
CO 

 
0 
+-' 
CJ) 
5 


1.0 
0.01 


----- ----........ 


-
 


""-.; ........... 
"" 
'i'... 
" 


'........ 


....... 
" 
'" 
'\. 
'" ,,
 
\ 

 
\1- 
-- 
 

 

 0 

 '17 
\("- _ ".. 

 
o ',) 
.
 
('I.... 
% 
\1 

 


"'
 
",\
1< ... 
"''''(\)O 
.
 
\ ('I
 
"' '? 
21 acre-feet per square mi Ie 
-----"'1"- - -t -;- - - -- -- -f- 
 -
 
Example: Folr a median' annua,1 7 - dav minimum flow I 
 / ' 1 \ 
of 0.11 cfsm. and a desired draft of 0.2 cfsm. 2f If' I 
acre-feet of storage would be required to' 
maintain that draft rate. I 
I 
I 
I \ 
I \ 
IE _\ 
I 
 1 
o 
I.... 
.1 ci 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
1 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 


\ 
\ 
\ 
\ 


, 


0.02 


0.04 0.05 


0.08 0.1 


0.3 


0.4 0.5 


0.2 


0.03 


Median annual 7-day minimum flow, 
in cubic feet per second per square mi Ie 


Figure 14.--Regional draft-storage curves for a 
20-year recurrence interval. 


- 3'4 - 


0.8 1.0 



By combining flood-frequency curves within homogeneous regions, three 
regional curves were found to be applicable within the Central New York 
Region, and are designated A, D, and H in figures 15 and 16. Curve A 
applies to a small area of northeastern Oswego County which lies in the Tug 
Hill Upland (fig. 15). Curve H is not truly a regional curve in that it 
applies only to specific reaches where the flood peaks are reduced signifi- 
cantly by storage or regulation. The reaches where curve H is applicable 
include the Erie Barge Canal, Owasco Outlet, Skaneateles Creek, Ninemile 
Creek, Seneca River, Oneida River, and Oswego River. Curve D applies to 
the remainder of the Central New York Region. 


The term flood, as used in this section of the report, refers only to 
a relatively high discharge. In this sense, the highest discharge of the 
year for a given stream would be considered a flood even if the stream 
stayed within its banks and no damage occurred. This view is taken to 
facilitate statistical analysis of yearly peak discharges, the larger ones 
of which do cause inundation and damage. 


Flood magnitudes are influenced by many factors including drainage 
area, land and stream slopes, air and water temperatures, channel storage, 
soil depth, and lakes and swamps. Of these, drainage area has by far the 
most significant influence. The mean of the annual floods, which has been 
shown to have a recurrence interval of 2.33 years, was used as the index to 
determine hydrologic areas. By plotting drainage area against the mean 
annual flood for each station with sufficient record, 10 hydrologic areas 
were defined in New York State and reported by Robison (1961). Of these, 
only areas I and 9 are represented in the Central New York Region. Their 
curves are shown in figure 17. An additional curve (labeled 12) was devel- 
oped to be applied to the stream reaches where fl09d-frequency region 
curve H applies. In the Central New York Region flood-frequency regions A 
and D also coincide areally to hydrologic areas I and 9, respectively. In 
most other areas of the State, the boundaries do not coincide. This demon- 
strates the major effect of the Tug Hill Upland on the otherwise homogeneous 
flood characteristics of the five-county are&. 


Before applying the regional flood relationships to a design problem, 
it is necessary to select a recurrence interval. If the type of structure 
or its location is such that flooding would cause loss of life or great 
property damage, then the design will be for a flood which will probably 
never be exceeded. For most structures, however, the design will probably 
be selected on the basis of economics. It is likely that most design floods 
will fall within the frequency range presented in this report. 


Once the recurrence interval of the design flood is chosen, an 
experienced hydrologist can determine its magnitude by following these 
steps: 


I. Determine the drainage area in square miles above the 
selected site and the hydrologic area in which the 
site is located. 


2. Detenmine the mean annual flood for the site from the 
appropriate curve in figure 17. 


- 35 - 



... 
00' 


-0.- ,,,:k--,..... \" _______-;::- 
'.",-
.;'-- 
':':.
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---":
". 
, I (DCANA'TO,(. 
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/' 
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, ," 'I 
,,\ I ' 
". \ 
 CA"'O
 
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-\i
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 ( \. , 

... ,0 A 1,'1 '''!,_'f - 
 r
 
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-
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./ .. r ... 
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\ _':-,"---t-

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- 
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'1 

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\ r-;-'
-

[ f ',-_",l\' ';\1.ir-1-'----....------' 
\ 

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I, .. 1 10 \ 
\., I \! \ g, _--- 
\ 
 ; =.. .1 ,'"'''' '. '\ ' I . t 
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-\--
- 
,- 
 I t!,IO(


 
 c-.,. 
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-::.\ \ ... '" 
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v,
, ;'., ' I - .'I-.('
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, F . . :1,' I \ 

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, -
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,,0;. 
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- 
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 \. \ -- "tl f., I 

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,
/ \
 
--1 
 
\....i --- \.c;:.
 '
o I '''-0HOME
 .:.-
 '- '\ J 'i 
'\ \.J ------;----
'",,--T-----
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1'" 1:\ \' 
I' I 
cA.D J \ 
\ \, , 
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""" 1 
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, I ... 
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,----- , ",' I ('" \ 
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,
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2r 

l fiJ 
30' Ie' 76°00 



i> 


\. 


o 



( 
_;
, --f
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r-' - 
If-
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i

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 - , 
'..... 


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o 


---, 
) i 
I ' 
I ' \ 

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-",\'!. _c,
 
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. '", J 
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/ (Il. 
\.(.0 J> J \ '
 
T"'-

,

, L_ ,_

--,-!\ 
\ 1 j
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" c
 
" 

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 - , r f 
_.-Ic,.., , I ,-.f , I (' J 

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-y 
--


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 -- 


... 
DO' 


NOTE: See text for discussion 
of flood-frequency regions. 


N 
t 


Miles 


Figure 15.--Flood-frequency regions. 


- 36 - 



o 
1.01 


4 5 


4 
"8 
0 

 
CO 
::J 
c: 
c: 
ca 
c: 
ca 
Q) 
E 2 
S 
0 
',= 
ca 
a: 


Recurrence interval, in years 


Figure 16.--Frequency of annual floods for 
regions A, D, and H. 


3. Determine the ratio to mean annual flood for the 
selected recurrence interval from the appropriate 
curve in figure 16. 


4. Multiply the ratio to mean annual flood (step 3) by 
the mean annual flood (step 2) to obtain the design 
flood magnitude. 


5. A complete flood-frequency curve for a specific site 
in the region may be obtained if desired by 
repeating steps 3 and 4 for various recurrence 
i nterva Is. 


Generally, a frequency curve developed by this method gives a better 
indication of the frequency of future floods at a site than a curve from 
streamflow records at the site alone, provided the hydrologic areas and 
flood-frequency regions used to develop the regional curves are truly 
homogeneous. If this condition is met, then any variations experienced 
between flood magnitudes in adjacent streams during a given period of time 
may be ascribed to chance. 


For example, consider two basins which are hydrologic replicas of each 
other. Several higher intensity storms on one basin over a period of 
several years may produce different flood-frequency curves for each basin. 
However, we would expect these chance variations to average out over a long 
period of time and the flood-frequency curves to approximate each other. 
The method described by Robison (1961) has the advantage of tending to 
average out these chance variations. One disadvantage is, of course, that 
no two basins are exactly alike and homogeneity can only be approximated. 


- 37 - 



10 


"'C 
c: 
o 
u 
(]) 
en 
CD 
0.. 
a; 

 
u 
..c 
::J 
u 
- 
o 
en 
"'C 
c: 
ca 
en 
::J 
o 
-;: 


0 

, 
/' V 
L
 v 
,/ /'/ "7 .LV 
9 //I} /1.0'" V V 
12 

X y 
0 
V 
V 
, ./ /' 

 / 
./ /'" / 
//7 l.I 
v(
V / 

... ./ 
/1 7 / 
/0 / 

4


 
 n / 
I 
PLE A stream site In hydrologic / 

 I area 1 wIth a drainage area of 30 sq ml 
o has a mean annual flood of 1,410 cfs. 

 I / 
/' I V 
'l'; ./ 
" 
 / 
: / 
I 
I 
-I 

I 
!/) 

q 
I 
I 
1 I 
10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 200 J 0 400 500 1000 2000 3000 500 


c: 


"'C 
o 
o 
;:;:: 


co 
::J 
c: 

 1. 
c: 
co 
(]) 

 


o. 


o 


Drainage area, in square miles 


Figure 17.--Variation of mean annual flood with drainage area 
in hydrologic areas 1,9, and 12. 


Flood-frequency relations presented here should not be extrapolated 
beyond the limits shown. Only limited data are now available for streams 
with drainage areas less than 10 square miles and relatively short periods 
of streamflow record limit the prediction of recurrence intervals to 
50 years. 


- 38 - 



REGIONAL FLOOD-VOLUME FREQUENCY 


Although peak discharges usually control the amount of flood damage, 
often it is desired to prevent a flood in the first place by providing 
detention storage during high-flow periods. Knowledge of peak discharges 
alone does not provide sufficient information to design the needed storage 
facilities. An indication of the total volume of water associated with the 
high-flow period is required. 


O'Donnell and Hood (written communication, 1967) developed regionalized 
flood-volume frequency relations for the Oswego River basin, which covers 
56 percent of the five-county area. On the basis of known similarities with 
respect to flood characteristics, these relations may reasonably be assumed 
to apply also to the remaining 44 percent of the Central New York Region. 
When highest consecutive-day average discharges were expressed as ratios to 
the mean annual flood, it was found that two sets of regional curves applied 
to the Central New York Region. These curves are shown in figures 18 and 19 
and correspond areally to the flood-frequency regions A and D discussed in 
the previous section. A third set of flood-volume frequency curves presumably 
would apply to the reaches to which curve H of figure 16 applies. 


To illustrate the use of these relations, assume the following hypo- 
thetical situation. It is desired to provide detention storage for high 
flows by a proposed dam to control destructive floods downstream. The 
drainage area above the proposed damsite is 30 square miles. It is desired 
to provide protection for a 50-year flood, and the critical flow period 
associated with the 50-year flood is assumed to be 7 days. To determine 
the amount of water associated with this flow period, the hydrologist follows 
this procedure: 


I. Determine the hydrologic area within which the upstream 
drainage area lies. (In this case, assume it lies in 
hydrologic area I.) 


2. Determine the mean annual flood at a site from figure 17, 
(for a drainage area of 30 square miles, 1,410 cfs). 


3. From figure 18, determine the discharge, in ratio to 
mean annual flood, associated with a 50-year recurrence 
interval and a 7-day flow period, (0.56). 


4. Multiply the discharge, in ratio to mean annual flood, 
by the mean annual flood, (1,410 cfs X 0.56 = 790 cfs). 


This figure of 790 cfs is the average flow during the 7-day period. 
The volume of water associated with the period is 790 X 7 = 5,530 cfs-days, 
or 10,970 acre-feet. We expect that this volume of water (or more) will 
rlow past the site during some 7-day period on an average of once in 50 years. 
The difference between this flood volume and the volume that the stream can 
Isaf
ly" carry without causing flood damage may then be used as a basis for 
the design of detention storage facilities for floodflows. 


- 39 - 



8.0 


"C 1.0 
0 
0 
;;: 
ro 
:J 
c: 
c: 
CO 
c: 
CO 
CD 
E 
B 
0 
';:; 
e 
c: 
CD- 
E> 
CO 
.s::: 
u 
<J) 
6 
0.10 


1 day 


0.01 
1.01 


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 


5 6 7 8 9 10 


90 day 
I 
-183 day 
I 
t 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
20 30 40 50 100 


Recurrence interval, in years 


Figure 18.--FI00d-volume frequency relations for region A. 


Flood volumes may be estimated in a similar manner for other sites for 
various recurrence intervals and flow periods. In the design of flood 
detention facilities, the selection of a recurrence interval depends largely 
on the size of the drainage area. Small streams tend to rise and fall 
rapidly and, for many of these, the critical flow period often is as little 
as I day. Larger streams usually require selection of a longer critical 
flow period, but probably never more than 7 days in New York State. 
Regional curves for periods more than 7 days are useful in the design of 
reservoirs for water supply, and give an indication of the probability of 
the reservoir filling each spring, when most high-flow periods occur. 


- 40 - 




 1 day 


---
-- ------I 
_--- I 


"0 
0 
0 
;;:: 
(ij 
;:, 
c:: 0.5 
c:: 
co 
c:: 
co 
Q) 
E 
B 
0 
'';; 

 
c:: 
ai 

 
co 
.s::: 
(,J 
<J) 0.1 
6 


--- 

I--- 
I !....-- -I.-- - 
I" .....----- 
!..------ -- 
I __-- 
I _
--- 
1--- -- 
I 


I 


3day- 


I 


I 


7day- 


- 30 day 


- 90 day 


-- 


------ , --'-1-' I 
__--r- / I 1___- 
I-'--
 


183 day 


-- 


0,05 


0.01 
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 100 
Recurrence interva I, in years 
Fig u re 19.--Flood-volume frequency re 1 at i on s for reg i on D. 


- 41 - 



QUALITY OF WATER 


CHEMICAL QUALITY 


The quality of the water, especially the ground water, is a very 
important consideration in planning the development of the Central New York 
Region. Because it is in contact with soluble materials for a much longer 
time than surface water, ground water tends to contain much more dissolved 
minerals. 


What constitutes satisfactory quality, of course, depends on the use 
to which the water is to be put. In this region, most of the water is, and 
will be, used for various domestic and industria1 purposes. Chemical 
quality requirements for industry are many and varied. They have been 
summarized by McKee and Wolf (1963, p. 92-106) and will not be discussed 
here. Standards for drinking water for New York are defined in Part 72 of 
the Administrative Rules and Regulations of the State of New York (1964). 
To conform with these standards, the maximum permissible concentrations of 
the common ions are: 


Mill i grams 
pe r lit e r 


Chemical 
constituent 


Chloride 
Iron 
Manganese 
Nitrate 
Sulfate 
Total dissolved solids 


250 
.3 
.3 
10 
250 
500 


The total dissolved solids in a water sample gives a good indication 
of the overall quality of the water. If the total dissolved solids is high, 
the water is almost certain to contain large amounts of one or more of the 
undesirable ions such as sulfate or chloride, or to be excessively hard. 
A quick check on the total dissolved solids can be obtained by measuring the 
specific conductance of the water. The total diss01ved solids, in mi11igrams 
per liter, can be estimated as two-thirds of the specific conductance, meas- 
ured as micromhos per centimeter at 2
C. 


Another important consideration, especially for domestic use, is the 
hardness of the water. This manifests itself in increased consumption of 
soap and the formation of a scum. Hardness a1so causes the formation of 
scale in hot-water heaters, pipes, cooking utensils, and boilers. 


The hardness of water classification of Collins, Lamar, and Lohr 
(1934, p. 17-18) has been generally accepted. Under this classification, 
water having a hardness of 60 mg/I or less is considered "soft." However, 
water with a hardness near 60 mg/I may have to be softened for some 
industrial uses. Water containing 61 to 120 mg/I of hardness is "moderately 
hard" and wi11 have to be softened for many industrial uses; it may be 
softened for household use. Collins, Lamar, and Lohr report that it is 


- 42 - 



customary to reduce the hardness of municipal supplies to less than 120 mg/I. 
Water having a hardness of 121 to 180 mg/1 is considered "hard" and generally 
is softened for most uses. Water having a hardness of more than 180 mg/1 is 
considered "very hard." 


The alkaline-earth metals, calcium and 
constituents that cause hardness of water. 
aluminum, iron, manganese, strontium, zinc, 
generally are present in water only in very 
therefore, that hard water will have a much 
content than soft water. 


magnesium, are the principal 
Hardness also is caused by 
and free acid, but these 
sma11 amounts. It follows, 
higher calcium and magnesium 


The quality of water is often poor in the broad zone shown running 
across the middle of the Central New York Region (fig. I). This is due 
mainly to the presence of highly soluble salt and gypsum in the middle shale 
units. Water flowing over and through these units has dissolved much of the 
salt and gypsum, causing the high sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved 
solids content in the local water. Another cause of the high mineral content 
is the discharge of some industrial wastes into the water system. 


Additional development of the water resources in the Central New York 
Region can affect the chemical quality of the water. Heavy or prolonged 
pumping from wells can deplete the local supply of good water and cause 
water of poorer quality to move into the wells. Conversely, heavy pumping 
of a shallow well along a stream may result in the improvement of the water 
quality. Because surface water generally is less highly mineralized than 
ground water, heavy pumping may increase the amount of surface water entering 
an aquifer, and the quality of the water in the aquifer will be improved. 
Flow in many of the streams of the study area is used to dilute sewage and 
industrial wastes which are discharged to the streams. Increased withdrawals 
from the streams could reduce the flow to the point that there would not be 
enough flow to sufficiently dilute the wastes. 


The following discussions are based on analyses of about 100 ground- 
water samples and about 200 surface-water samples. Many of the analyses did 
not include detenminations of certain constituents, so that fewer analyses 
are available for certain constituents. For example, only 52 analyses of 
ground-water samples included a determination of total dissolved solids. 
Hardness and chloride content are so important that they were included in 
all the analyses. 


QUALITY OF THE GROUND WATER 


The chemical quality of the ground water from the different hydrologic 
units is summarized in table 3. The following paragraphs discuss the quality 
of the water in relation to the hydrologic units. 


The lower shale unit seems to have the best quality water in the area, 
but only three analyses are available. Total dissolved solids ranged from 


- 43 - 



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- 44 - 



80 to 89 mg/I, and hardness ranged from 56 to 64 mg/I. Iron, however, may 
be a problem. Two of the three samples contained more than 0.3 mg/I, but 
the highest was 0.56 mg/I. 


Without doubt, the poorest water is that from the middle shale unit. 
This is to be expected because this unit contains considerable amounts of 
salt and gypsum, which are readily dissolved. Total dissolved solids 
ranged from 1,560 to over 34,000 mg/l, and hardness ranged from 490 to 
5,050 mg/I. Chloride concentrations were as high as 21,200 mg/I, and 
sulfate concentrations were as high as 3,510 mg/l. Iron also tends to be 
a problem in some localities. 


Water from the limestone unit also is of rather poor quality. Total 
dissolved solids ranged from 372 to about 900 mg/I, and the hardness, as 
would be expected, ranged from 319 to 680 mg/l. Iron may also be a problem. 


Water from the other units is generally of better quality, although at 
least one sample from each unit had high total dissolved solids and hardness. 
Only 2 of 13 samples from the upper shale unit contained over 500 mg/I total 
dissolved solids. Water in the unconsolidated deposits tends to reflect 
the influence of the underlying bedrock. 


Although it is not always true, it seems that throughout most of the 
study area water from deep gravel deposits is high in iron, water from 
shallow gravel deposits is very hard, and water from the bedrock is apt to 
be hard and high in iron. In general, water in the Susquehanna River basin 
is better than that in the Oswego River basin. 


QUALITY OF THE SURFACE WATER 


Water in streams is a mixture of overland runoff and more highly 
mineralized ground-water discharge, although at different times or places 
the entire flow may be from either source alone. Thus, during base-flow 
periods, when most of the water in streams is from ground water, concentra- 
tions of dissolved solids are at their highest. Conversely, during floods 
most of the flow is from water that has passed quickly overland with little 
opportunity to dissolve minerals. At these times, concentrations of 
dissolved solids are at their lowest. 


Figures 20 and 21 show areas where more than the recommended limits of 
total dissolved solids and sulfate occur in the surface waters of the 
Central New York Region. The maps, adapted largely from W. J. Shampine 
(written communication, 1967) of the U.S. Geological Survey, are based on 
chemical analyses of water samples collected during periods of base flow. 
As such, the maps reflect the worst chemical-quality conditions with respect 
to time. 


Notice, from the dissolved solids map, that water from many streams 
exceeds. in some reaches, the 500 mg/I maximum limit recommended by New York 
State. Although water from most streams contains less than this amount, 


- 45 - 



30' ,,' 
io-i- 
 0 
 

 
 
v 
 

 

 
0 


IS' 


... 
00' 



 --- 


More than 500 milli9roms per liter 
of total dissolved solids under bose- 
flow conditions. 


Miles 


..' 


30' 


Figure 20.--Surface waters containing more than 500 mi11igrams per liter 
of tota1 dissolved solids during base-flow conditions. 


-46- 



,,' 


... 
00' 


io-i> 0 
\. 

 
 
" 
 

 t 

 
30' 3.' 


... 
00' 



 


More than 250 milligrams per liter 
of sulfate under baseflow conditions 


'8-' 


3d 


Miles 


..' 


30' 


I.' 


Figure 21.--Surface waters containing more than 250 mi11igrams per liter 
of sulfate during base-f1ow conditions. 


- 47 - 



only a few streams, notably those draining the lower shale and sandstone 
units in the northeastern part of the region, contain water that might be 
described as excellent. In these units, dissolved solids commonly amount 
to less than 100 mg/I and the water in most cases is soft. 


Many streams flowing north from the upper shale unit in the southern 
part of the study area undergo a dramatic change in chemical quality a$ they 
pass through the middle shale unit (pl. 2). Jumps of 500 to 1,000 mg/I of 
dissolved solids are conrnon. The "natural" surface waters of this area 
often exceed 1,000 mg/I of dissolved solids. Ninemile Creek at Syracuse 
sometimes exceeds 13,000 mg/I of total dissolved solids, though this is due 
in large measure to manmade pollution. It is quite conceivable that this 
area contains the most highly mineralized nonmarine surface waters in New 
York State. 


The water quality of the Oswego River at its mouth is a fairly goo
 
summary of the surface-water quality of the five-county area as a whole. 
Dissolved solids content under base-flow conditions usually ranges between 
500 and 1,000 mg/I. Hardness, as CaC03, usually exceeds 300 mg/I. Chloride 
usually exceeds 250 mg/l, and sulfate ranges between 50 and 100 mg/I. In 
other words, the base-flow chemical quality of the surface waters of the 
Central New York Region averages out to be poor, although most communities 
have managed to locate water supplies of generally good quality. Lakes, 
especially, make good surface-water supplies, partly because the large 
amount of water in storage makes for a relatively constant water quality. 
The city of Syracuse utilizes Skaneateles Lake for its water supply
 and 
Otisco Lake serves many other communities in Onondaga County. 


POLLUTION 


Pollution is usually the result of man1s activities, and comes 
primarily from sewage and industrial wastes. Most pollution problems are 
found in surface water; except for cavernous aquifers, such as the limestone 
and middle shale units, aquifer materials generally act as filters and 
remove pollution in suspension (but not in solution) before the water 
travels very far. Shallow wells located near cesspools, septic tanks, 
stock yards, and the like are the ones most likely to become polluted, 
especially if the well casing is not adequately sealed at the surface, and 
if the well is downgradient from the source of the pollutant. 


Figure I shows the areas in the Central New York Region where the 
surface water is likely to be polluted. It is readily apparent that most 
of these areas are concentrated around and downstream from the heavily 
populated areas. Onondaga Lake, which is perhaps the most heavily polluted 
body of water in New York State, is a dramatic example of the effect of 
urbanization on the quality of the water. 


No information is available as to polluted ground-water supplies, and 
any pollution that may occur in the area probably is local in nature. The 
ground-water supplies most susceptible to pollution are those obtained from 
shallow wells, especially dug wells. Septic tanks, cesspools, garbage 


- 48 - 



dumps, and barnyards are likely sources of pollution to ground water, 
especially if they are located near a well, or near fractures in a limestone 
aquifer. Sand and gravel deposits tend to act as natural filters, and 
ground water loses its pollution (except dissolved pollutants) after perco- 
lating for a few hundred feet. In limestone aquifers, however, there is 
little filtering action, and the ground water may remain polluted for long 
distances from the source of pollution. 


Dug wells, and other wells that are not tightly sealed at the surface, 
are very susceptible to pollution because it is fairly easy for polluted 
surficial water to run down the casing to the water table and then be pumped 
out of the well. 


A method for evaluating the potential for pollution of a waste-disposal 
site has been derived by LeGrand (1964). This method should be useful to 
local planners who can incorporate their familiarity with the area into an 
evaluation. 


- 49 - 



FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF 
WATER RESOURCES 


The Central New York Region is developing at a rate faster than other 
parts of the State. Between 1950 and 1960, the population increased 
18.6 percent (New York State Department of Commerce, 1963, p. 2) and this 
high growth rate seems likely to continue in the forseeable future. Devel- 
opment of the water resources of the region will probably take place at an 
even faster rate. 


A major aspect of future development will be the search for additional 
water supplies to furnish rapidly growing communities. Surface-water 
supplies, which furnish most of the large communities, generally are 
adequate for present needs, and the large quantities of water available 
allow for future expansion. Most of the smaller communities, whose water 
needs are more modest, will prefer to develop ground-water supplies because 
of the more constant temperature and the lessened danger of pollution which 
ground water offers. One of the major drawbacks, however, is the high 
degree of mineralization of the ground water in many parts of the five- 
county area
 


Two areas where large amounts of ground water are available for future 
use are: (I) the sand and gravel deposits of the Homer-Cortland area, and 
(2) the cavernous dolomite and limestone aquifers of the central part of 
the study area. Wells drilled in the sand and gravel deposits of the Homer- 
Cortland area quite often yield more than 500 gpm of good-quality water, 
and in many areas recharge is available from the West Branch Tioughnioga 
River. The large quantities of water available from the cavernous dolomite 
and limestone units, however, are almost invariably excessively hard; are 
capable of transmitting pollution; and the percentage of wells having large 
yields is small. In other respects the water obtained is usually satis- 
factory. Additional promising areas for future development of municipal 
water supplies may be inferred from previous discussions of the ground-water 
resources. 


Damaging floods have occurred on most major streams of the Central New 
York Region. Several courses of action are available to control future 
flood damages. Flood-plain zoning is becoming more and more vital as 
communities build more and more along the riverbanks. Channel capacities 
may be enlarged in critical reaches. Flood-control reservoirs have been 
and will be built on some streams to reduce peak flows. Also, improvements 
are being and will be made on many lake outlets to better control lake 
levels. 


The irrigated acreage in the Central New York Region amounts to only 
about 12,000 acres at present. It is estimated that there will be almost 
an eightfold increase by the year 2020, to about 90,000 acres. Water 
presently used amounts to about 10 mgd over the 4-month growing season and 
about 80 mgd will be required by the year 2020 11. It should be noted that 


1/ Figures estimated from information in New York State 
Water Resources Commission, 1967, p. 38. 


- 50 - 



irrigation is a consumptive use of water and much of it is lost to the 
region through evapotranspiration. Most of this irrigation water comes 
from surface sources, although it is likely that the percentage of ground 
water used will increase somewhat in the future. 


Pollution of surface water is a serious problem in the populous areas 
of the region, particularly in the Syracuse area. As the New York State 
program for pure waters takes effect, however, the natural quality of the 
waters will be restored to a large degree. Pollution of the ground water 
has not been a serious problem in the past and probably will not be in the 
future, providing adequate protective measures are taken if and when needed. 


The rather poor chemical quality of many of the waters in the region 
has been a serious problem in the past and doubtless will continue to cause 
problems in the future. Water hardness is a widespread problem in the area; 
high sulfate content and high chloride content of both surface and ground 
waters will continue to cause occasional problems in the search for water 
supplies, as will high iron content from some ground water. Sulfate and 
chloride are difficult and expensive to remove from water, but iron may be 
easily and inexpensively removed by aeration. 


The waters of the Central New York Region constitute a hydrologic 
system, and it is impossible to change one part or aspect of it without 
having some effects, good or bad, on other parts. Water managers in devel- 
uping the water resources should consider all consequences of development 
and take advantage as much as possible of the favorable aspects, while 
minimizing unfavorable effects. A reservoir, for example, may be put to 
multiple uses: flood control, irrigation, low-flow augmentation, recreation, 
water-quality control, and water supply. Some of these uses, however, may 
conflict and part of the challenge of development of a reservoir or lake is 
to control water levels in a way which will satisfy the competing interests. 


Similar problems arise in other facets of development. Large scale 
pumping from aquifers adjacent to streams may induce enough recharge from 
the stream to seriously reduce the flow of the stream. Channel enlargement 
to reduce flood hazards in a given stream reach may contribute to increased 
flood hazards downstream. 


Available hydrologic information about the study area is adequate for 
general planning purposes, but for complex projects and more advanced 
planning, more intensive studies will be necessary. Information to be used 
for developing large ground-water supplies, for example, would include test 
drilling to determine the thickness and extent of the aquifers, and pumping 
tests as needed to determine the hydrologic properties. More streamflow 
information is needed to better define characteristics of low, high, and 
medium flow. Limnological studies, especially of the larger lakes, are 
more than ever desirable now because of the greatly increased recreational 
use of the lakes. Finally, more detailed studies are needed to better 
define the variations of water quality with respect to both time and location. 


- 51 - 



REFERENCES CITED 


Asselstine, E. S., 1946, Progress report on ground-water conditions in the 
Cortland Quadrangle, New York : New York Water Power and Control Comm. 
Bull. GW-16, 49 p. 


Broughton, J. G., Fisher, D. W., Isachsen, Y. W., and Rickard, L. V., 1966, 
Geology of New York, a short account : New York State Mus. and Sci. 
Service Educ. Leaflet 20, 45 p. 


Collins, W. D., Lamar, W. L., and Lohr, E. W., 1934, The industrial utility 
of public water supplies in the United States, 1932 : U.S. Geol. Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 658, 135 p. 


Cross, W. P., 1963, Low-flow frequencies and storage requirements for 
selected Ohio streams : Ohio Dept. of Nat. Resources, Div. of Water 
Bu II. 37, 66 p. 


Dalrymple, Tate, 1960, Flood-frequency analysis : U.S. Geol. Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 1543-A, 80 p. 


Hunt, O. P., 1967, Duration curves and low-flow frequency curves of stream- 
flow in the Susquehanna River basin, New York : New York Water Resources 
Comm. Bull. 60, 52 p. 


Knox, C. E., and Nordenson, T. J., 1955, Average annual runoff and 
precipitation in the New England-New York area : U.S. Geol. Survey 
Hydrol. Inv. Atlas, HA-7. 


LeGrand, H. E., 1964, System for evaluation of 
ontamination potential of 
some waste disposal sites : Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 56, no. 8, 
p. 959-974. 


McKee, J. E., and Wolf, H. W., eds., 1963, Water quality criteria : State 
of California Water Quality Control Board Pub. 3-A, 548 p. 
New York State Department of Commerce, 1963, Business fact book, 1963, 
Syracuse area, pt. 2, population and housing: 28 p. 


New York State Water Resources Commission, 1967, Developing and managing 
the water resources of New York State : Albany, N. Y., New York State 
Conserve Dept., Div. of Water Resources, 52 p. 


Parker, G. G., Cohen, Philip, and Foxworthy, B. L., 1967, Artificial 
recharge and its role in scientific water management, with emphasis 
on Long Island, N. Y. : Am. Water Resources Assoc.Proc., Natl. Symposium on 
Ground-Water Hydrology, San Francisco, California, p. 193-213. 


- 52 - 



Reed, J. E., Deutsch, Morris, and Wiitala, S. W., 1966, Induced recharge of 
an artesian glacia1-drift aquifer at Kalamazoo, Michigan : U.S. Ge01. 
Survey Water-Supply Paper 1594-D, 62 p. 


Robison, F. L., 1961, Floods in New York, magnitude and frequency : 
U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 454, 10 p. 


Searcy, J. K., 1959, F1ow-duration curves : u.S. Ge01. Survey Water-Supp1y 
Paper 1542-A, 33 p. 


Smith, H. F., 1967, Artificial recharge and its potential in Illinois in 
Internat. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Pub. no. 72, Haifa: p. 136-142. 


State of New York, 1964, Administrative rules and regulations, part 72, 
drinking water standards: secs. 72.1 through 72.6. 


Suter, Max, 1956, High-rate recharge of ground water by infi1tration : Am. 
Water Works Assoc., v. 48, no. 4, p. 355-360. 


Thornthwaite, C. W., and Mather, J. R., 1957, Instructions and tables for 
computing potentia1 evapotranspiration and the water ba1ance : Drexel 
Inst. of Technology, Lab. of Climatology, Pubs. in C1imat01ogy, v. X, 
no. 3, p. 185-311. 


Todd, D. K., 1959, Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground 
water through 1954: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supp1y Paper 1477, 115 p. 


U.S. Public Health Service, 1964, 1963 inventory, municipal water faci1ities, 
Region II, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsy1vania : Public Health 
Service Pub. no. 775 ( revised ) , v. 2, 1 6 8 p. 


Winslow, J. D., Stewart, H. G., Jr., Johnston, R. H., and Crain, L. J., 
1965, Ground-water resources of eastern Schenectady County, New York, 
with emphasis on infi1tration from the Mohawk River : New York Water 
Resources Comm. Bull. 57, 148 p. 


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GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PERTAINING TO 
WATER RESOURCES 


Term or abbreviation Def i nit i on 
Acre-foot Enouah water to cove r an acre to a depth of 1 foot = 43,56D cub i c feet, or about 326,DDD gallons. 
Aqui fer A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that is water bearing; a ground-water reservoi r. 
Base flow Fa I r-weather runott; generally composed largely of ground-water discnarge 
Bedd i ng plane The dividing planes that separate individual I ayers or beds of rock. 
Cavernous aqui fer An aquifer in which the water occurs in I arge open i ngs, such as caves in 1 imestone or basal t. 
cfs Cub i c fee t pe r second. 
Channe 1 s to rage The volume of water in defini te stream channels above a given measuring point or "outlet" at a gi ven time 
duri ng the progress of runoff. 
CI imatic year Year beginning Apri I I and end i ng March 31. The cl imatic year is designated by the calendar year in which 
it starts. 
Cone of depression The depress ion, roughly conical In shape, produced in a water table by pumping from a well. 
Conf i n I ng bed Dne wh i ch, becau se of its posl tion, and its Impermeab IIi ty or low permeab i I I ty rei at i ve to that of the 
aquifer, prevents or retards the natural discharge of water from the aquifer Into adjacent formations. 
Dip The angle between the bedding plane and the horizontal plane. 
Draft storage The amount of water storage requ I red to supply a certain dai Iy draft or wi thdrawal. 
Drawdown The vertical distance thro
hich the water level in a well is lowered by pumping. 
Evapotranspl ration The combined loss of water from di rect evaporation and through the use of water by vegetation. 
Flow-durat ion curve A cumulative frequency curve showing the percent of time that specified discharQes were equaled or exceeded 
during a given period. 
gpd Ga lions per day. 
gpm Gallons per minute. 
Ground-water discharge Discharqe nf water from the zone of saturation, usually by seepage to streams or other surface-water bodies. 
but may I nc I ude the discharge f rom we 11 sand spri ngs. 
Ground-water recharge Wate r that I s added to the zone of saturation. 
Ground-water runoff That pa rt of the runoff wh i ch has passed into the ground, has become ground water, and ha s been d I schar ged 
I nto a stream channe I as spring or seepage water. 
Head Amount of water pressure at a certain point; determined by the height of water over that point. 
Hyd rau I i c grad i ent Pressure gradient. As applied to an aqu i fer it is the rate of change of pressure head per unit of 
distance of flow at a given point and in a given dl rectlon. 
Hydrograph A graph showi ng level, flow, veloci ty, or other property of water wi th respect to time. 
Imperrneab I e Havlna a texture that does not permit water to move through it perceptibly under the head differences 
that common I y occu r In nat:ure 
Infiltration The flow or movement of water through the I and surface into the 'I round. 
Infiltration capacity The maximum rate at which the soi I, when in a given condition, can absorb fwater. 
Joint Fracture planes or surfaces that divide rocks but along which there has been no visible movement. 
Low-f low frequency cu rve A graph showing the recurrence interval (average return period), in years, at which the lowest mean 
discharge for a selected number of days during a cl imatic year may be expected to be no greater than 
a spec i f i ed d I scha rge. 
mgd Million gallons per day. 
mg/I Milligrams per liter; a measure of concentration of dl ssolved chemical consti tuents in water; equivalent 
to one part, by we i ght, In I ml II ion. 
Moisture capacity The amount of water a soi I holds after excess gravitational water has drained away. 
(a 1 so ca 11 ed fie I d capac i ty) 
Permeab I I i ty The rate of flow of water in gallons a day (gpd) through a cross sect i on of I square foot under a hydrau Ii c 
(coefficient of) gradient of IDD percent at a temperature of 6DoF. 
Pollution The presence of biological and chern ica I contami nants in water. 
Porosity (p) The ratio of the aggregate volume of pore spaces in a rock or soil to Its total volume. It is usually 
stated as a aercentaae. '(Porositv Is equal to the sum of the specific vleld and the saeciflc retention.) 
Runof f The part of precipitation that appears in surface streams that are not regu I ated. 
Safe yield The rate at which water can be withdrawn from an aquifer without depleting the supply to such an extent 
that continued withdrawal at th i s rate i s ha rmf u I to the aqu i fer i tse If, or to the qua Ii ty of the wate r, 
or is not economically feasible. In practice, the safe yield i s equa I to or less than the mean annua I 
recharge to the aqu I fer. 
Screen loss That pa rt of the d rawdown i n a pump i n g we II that may be attributed to the restriction to free flow of water 
(of a we 11) through the screen and the mater i a I Immediately Surrounding the screen. 
Soi I (zone) A layer of loose earthy material, approximately parallel to the land surface, which has been so modified 
and ac ted upon by phy sica I , cheml ca 1, and biological agents that it wi II support p I ant growth. 
Spec if I c capac i ty The ratio of the yield of a well to the drawdown of water level in the we II at a given pumping rate; 
(of a well) genera Ily expressed in gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. 
Stat i c level That level which, for a given point in an aqu i fe r, passes through the top of a column of water that can be 
(hydrostat I c level) supported by the hydrostatic pressure of the water at that point. Corresponds to the water table or 
piezometric surface under static conditions. 
Storage The vo I ume of water in cubic feet released from storage I n each ve rt I ca I column of an aquifer having a base 
(coefficient of) I foo t squa re when the water table or other piezometric surface decl ines I foot. (Thl s is approximately 
equal to the specific yield for nonartesian aquifers.) 
Stream infl I tration The flow or movement of water through the bed of a stream Into the underlying material. 
Transmissibi I ity The rate of flow of water in gallons per day through a section of aquifer I foot wide and having a height 
(coefficient of) equal to the saturated thickness of the aqui fer, under a hydraul ic gradient of I DD percent, and at a 
tempe ra tu re of 6Do F . The coefficient of transmlsslbi 1 Ity i s equa I to the coefficient of permeability 
times the saturated thickness of the aquifer. 
Water tab 1 e The upper surface of a zone of saturat i on having an ai r-water interface. 
Water year Year beginning October I and end I ng September 3D. The water year is desi gnated by the calendar year In 
which it ends. 
Zone of aeration The zone between the wate r tab I e and the land surface in wh i ch the po re spaces of the rocks are not a II 
fill ed (except temporari Iy) wi th water. 
Zone of saturation The zone in wh ich the pore spaces of rocks are saturated wi th water under hydrostatl c pressure. 


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BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION AND 
PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


An asterisk (*) indicates that the report is out of print, 
but such reports are available for consultation in certain libraries. 


BULLETINS: 
*GW- I WITHDRAWAL OF GROUND WATER ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
D. G. Thompson and R. M. Leggette (1936) 
*GW- 2 ENGINEERING REPORT ON THE WATER SUPPLIES OF LONG ISLAND. 
Russet I Suter (1937) 
*GW- 3 RECORD OF WELLS IN KINGS COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. M. Leggette and others (1937) 
*GW- 4 RECORD OF WELLS IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. M. Leggette and others (1938) 
*GW- 5 RECORD OF WELLS IN NASSAU COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. M. Leggette and others (1938) 
*GW- 6 RECORD OF WELLS IN QUEENS COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. M. Leggette and others (1938) 
*GW- 7 REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY OF KINGS AND QUEENS 
COUNTIES, LONG ISLAND. 
Homer Sanford (1938) 
GW- 8 RECORD OF WELLS IN KINGS COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1. 
R. M. Leggette and M. L. Brashears, Jr. (1944) 
GW- 9 RECORD OF WELLS IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1. 
C. M. Roberts and M. L. Brashears, Jr. (1945) 
GW-10 RECORD OF WELLS IN NASSAU COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT I. 
C. M. Roberts and M. L. Brashears, Jr. (1946) 
*GW-II RECORD OF WELLS IN QUEENS COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT I. 
C. M. Roberts and M. C. Jaster (1947) 
*GW-12 THE WATER TABLE IN THE WESTERN AND CENTRAL PARTS OF LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
C. E. Jacob (1945) 
*GW-13 THE CONFIGURATION OF THE ROCK FLOOR IN WESTERN LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Wallace de Laguna and M. L. Brashears, Jr. (1948) 
GW-14 CORRELATION OF GROUND-WATER LEVELS AND PRECIPITATION ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y 
C. E. Jacob (1945) 
*GW-15 PROGRESS REPORT ON GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHWESTERN PART 
OF BROOME COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. H. Brown and J. G. Ferris (1946) 
*GW-16 PROGRESS REPORT ON GROUND-WATER CONDITIONS IN THE CORTLAND QUADRANGLE, N. 
 
E. S. Asselstine (1946) 
*GW-17 GEOLOGIC CORRELATION OF LOGS OF WELLS IN KINGS COUNTY, N. Y. 
Wallace de Laguna (1948) 
GW-18 MAPPING OF GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND AQUIFERS OF LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Russell Suter, Wallace de Laguna, and N. M. Perlmutter (1949) 
*GW-19 GEOLOGIC ATLAS OF LONG ISLAND. (Consists of large-scale reproductions 
of maps in GW-18.) (1950) 
*GW-20 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ALBANY COUNTY, N. Y. 
Theodore Arnow (1949) 
GW-20A BURIED PREGLACIAL GROUND-WATER CHANNELS IN THE ALBANY-SCHENECTADY 
AREA IN NEW YORK. 
E. S. Simpson (1949) 


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BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION AND 
PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (Continued) 


BULLETINS: 
GW-21 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF RENSSELAER COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. V. Cushman (1950) 
GW-22 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY, N. Y. 
J. M. Berdan (1950) 
GW-23 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. M. Jeffords (1950) 
GW-24 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF FULTON COUNTY, N. Y. 
Theodore Arnow (1951) 
GW-25 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLUMBIA COUNTY, N. Y. 
Theodore Arnow (1951) 
GW-26 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SENECA COUNTY, N. Y. 
A. J. Mozola (1951) 
*GW-27 THE WATER TABLE IN LONG ISLAND, N. Y., IN JANUARY 1951. 
N. J. Lusczynski and A. H. Johnson (1951) 
*GW-28 WITHDRAWAL OF GROUND WATER ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 1. 
A. H. Johnson and others (1952) 
GW-29 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF WAYNE COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. E. G r i swo I d (J 951 ) 
GW-30 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SCHENECTADY COUNTY, N. Y. 
E. S. Simpson (1952) 
GW-31 RECORDS OF WELLS IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 2. 
Staff, Long Island office, Water Power and Control Commission (1952) 
GW-32 GROUND WATER IN BRONX, NEW YORK, AND RICHMOND COUNTIES WITH SUMMARY 
DATA ON KINGS AND QUEENS COUNTIES, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 
N. M. Perlmutter and Theodore Arnow (1953) 
GW-33 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. V. Cushman (1953) 
GW-34 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF GREENE COUNTY, N. Y. 
J. M. Berdan (1954) 
GW-35 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. Y., PART I, 
RECORDS OF WELLS AND TEST HOLES. 
E. S. Asselstine and I. G. Grossman (1955) 
GW-36 SALINE WATERS IN NEW YORK STATE. 
N. J. Lusczynski, J. J. Geraghty, E. S. Asselstine, and 
I. G. Grossman (1956) 
GW-37 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF PUTNAM COUNTY, N. Y. 
I. G. Grossman (1957) 
GW-38 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE OF WATER FROM WELLS IN 
SUFFOLK COUNTY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y., 1928-53. 
J. F. Hoffman and S. J. Spiegel (1958) 
*GW-39 RECORD OF WELLS IN NASSAU COUNTY, N. Y., SUPPLEMENT 2. 
Staff, Long Island office, Water Power and Control Commission (1958) 
GW-40 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF CHEMUNG COUNTY, N. Y. 
W. S. Wetterhall (1959) 
GW-41 GROUND-WATER LEVELS AND RELATED HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM SELECTED 
OBSERVATION WELLS IN NASSAU COUNTY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
John Isbister (1959) 
GW-42 GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ROCKLAND COUNTY, N. Y. 
N. M. Perlmutter (1959) 


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BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION AND 
PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (Continued) 


BULLETINS: 
GW-43 GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF DUTCHESS COUNTY, N. Y. 
E. T. Simmons, I. G. Grossman, and R. C. Heath (1961) 
GW-44 GROUND-WATER LEVELS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO GROUND-WATER PROBLEMS 
IN SUFFOLK COUNTY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
J. F. Hoffman and E. R. Lubke (1961) 
GW-45 HYDROLOGY OF THE SHALLOW GROUND-WATER RESERVOIR OF THE TOWN OF 
SOUTHOLD, SUFFOLK COUNTY, N. Y. 
J. F. Hoffman (1961) 
*GW-46 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF SULLIVAN COUNTY, N. Y. 
Julian Soren (1961) 
GW-47 GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE MASSENA-WADDINGTON AREA, 
ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY, N. Y. 
F. W. Trainer and E. H. Salvas (1962) 
GW-48 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF ONTARIO COUNTY, N. Y. 
F. K. Mack and R. E. Digman (1962) 
GW-49 GROUND-WATER STUDIES IN SARATOGA COUNTY, N. Y. 
R. C. Heath, F. K. Mack, and J. A. Tannenbaum (1963) 
GW-50 THE GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF DELAWARE COUNTY, N. Y. 
Julian Soren (1963) 
GW-51 GROUND WATER IN NEW YORK. 
R. C. Heath (1964) 
GW-52 WATER RESOURCES OF THE LAKE ERIE-NIAGARA AREA, N. Y.-A PRELIMINARY 
APPRAISAL. 
A. M. La Sala, Jr., W. E. Harding, and R. J. Archer (1964) 
GW-53 GROUND WATER IN THE NIAGARA FALLS AREA, N. Y. 
R. H. Johnston (1964) 
*54 MAXIMUM KNOWN DISCHARGES OF NEW YORK STREAMS. 
F. L. Robison (1965) 
55 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE OF THE WATERS 
OF NASSAU COUNTY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
F. A. DeLuca, J. F. Hoffman, and E. R. Lubke (1965) 
56 SUMMARY OF WATER-RESOURCES RECORDS AT PRINCIPAL MEASUREMENT 
SITES IN THE GENESEE RIVER BASIN, THROUGH 1963. 
B. K. Gilbert and J. C. Kammerer (1965) 
57 GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF EASTERN SCHENECTADY COUNTY, N. Y. 
J. D. Winslow, H. G. Stewart, Jr., R. H. Johnston, and 
L. J. Crain (1965) 
58 GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE JAMESTOWN AREA, N. Y. 
L. J. Crain (1966) 
59 SURFACE-WATER REGIMEN OF THE UPPER FLINT CREEK BASIN, N. Y. 
D. E. Vaupel (1967) 
60 DURATION CURVES AND LOW-FLOW FREQUENCY CURVES OF STREAMFLOW 
IN THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN, N. Y. 
O. p. Hunt (1967) 
61 THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY-A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF FLOW AND 
WATER-QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS. 
G. L. Giese and J. W. Barr (1967) 


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BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION AND 
PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (Continued) 


BULLETINS: 
62 AN ATLAS OF LONG ISLAND'S WATER RESOURCES 
Philip Cohen, O. L. Franke, and B. L. Foxworthy (1968) 
63 STREAMS IN DUTCHESS COUNTY, N. Y. 
G. R. Ayer and F. H. Pauszek (1968) 
64 WATER RESOURCES OF THE CENTRAL NEW YORK REGION 
W. G. Weist, Jr. and G. L. Giese (1969) 


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